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The terms ‘materialist’ and ‘idealistic’ are here used in a 


philosophical sense which will be explained and returned to in 


the course of this work. And though part of the ‘delusion’ of 



science is its belief that it has successfully replaced all 


previous philosophies (which indeed it has done as today’s 


dominant and de facto global world-view) it was an English 



philosopher - John Locke – who first set out the basis of what 


was to become known as ‘The Scientific Revolution’. What 


is extraordinary however, is that even today Locke is still 



seen as an ‘empirical’ philosopher - one who believes that 


knowledge should be grounded in verifiable experience. In 


actuality he laid the basis for what, in philosophical terms, is 


a wholly ‘idealistic’ concept of scientific ‘knowledge’. For 



Locke’s main claim to fame lay in affirming Galileo’s most 


basic claim - namely that what was ultimately ‘real’ was only 


the measurable properties of things. This implied that behind all 



the tangibly experienced qualities of natural phenomena lay 


nothing but abstract or ‘ideal’ quantities.


It took an Irish philosopher – Bishop George Berkeley 



– to undermine Locke’s untenable separation between the 


so-called ‘primary qualities’ of things (in reality nothing but 


measurable quantities such as density or weight) and the 



tangible qualities (such as hardness and heaviness) that they 


offer a measure of. And it took a German thinker - Edmund






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