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Introduction 5

behind such a controversial idea is not the easiest path either could 
their academic lives resting on their laurels. In the 1940s Pribram did 
have taken. Both their courage and the vision they have demonstrated 
pioneering work on the limbic system, a region of the brain involved 
in the past again add weight to the holographic idea.
in emotions and behavior. Bohm's work in plasma physics in the 1950s 
One final piece of evidence in favor of the holographic model is the 
is also considered landmark.
paranormal itself. This is no small point, for in the last several decades 
But even more significantly, each has distinguished himself in an- 
a remarkable body of evidence has accrued suggesting that our cur- 
other way. It is a way even the most accomplished men and womencan 
rent understanding of reality, the solid and comforting sticks-and- 
seldom call their own, for it is measured not by mere intelligence or 
stones picture of the world we all learned about in high-school science 
even talent. It is measured by courage, the tremendous resolve it takes 
class, is wrong. Because these findings cannot be explained by any of 
to stand up for one's convictions even in the face of overwhelming 
our standard scientific models, science has in the main ignored them. 
opposition. While he was a graduate student, Bohm did doctoral work 

with Robert Oppenheimer. Later, in 1951, when Oppenheimer came However, the volume of evidence has reached the point where this is 

under the perilous scrutiny of Senator Joseph McCarthy's Committee no longer a tenable situation.

on Un-American Activities, Bohm was called to testify against him and To give just one example, in 1987, physicist Robert G. Jahn and 

refused. As a result he lost his job at Princeton and never again taught clinical psychologist Brenda J. Dunne, both at Princeton University, 

in the United States, moving first to Brazil and then to London.
announced that after a decade of rigorous experimentation by their 

Early in his career Pribram faced a similar test of mettle. In 1935 Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory, they had ac- 

a Portuguese neurologist named Egas Moniz devised what hebelieved cumulated unequivocal evidence that the mind can psychically interact 

was the perfect treatment for mental illness. He discovered that by with physical reality. More specifically, Jahn and Dunne found that 

boring into an individual's skull with a surgical pick and severing the through mental concentration alone, human beings are able to affect 

prefrontal cortex from the rest of the brain he could make the most the way certain kinds of machines operate. This is an astounding 

troublesome patients docile. He called the procedure a prefrontal finding and one that cannot be accounted for in terms of our standard 

lobotomy, and by the 1940s it had become such a popular medical picture of reality.

technique that Moniz was awarded the Nobel Prize. In the 1950s the It can be explained by the holographic view, however. Conversely, 

procedure's popularity continued and it became a tool, like the because paranormal events cannot be accounted for by our current 

McCarthy hearings, to stamp out cultural undesirables. So accepted
scientific understandings, they cry out for a new way of looking at the 

was its use for this purpose that the surgeon Walter Freeman, the universe, a new scientific paradigm. In addition to showing how the 

most outspoken advocate for the procedure in the United States, wrote holographic model can account for the paranormal, the book will also 

examine how mounting evidence in favor of the paranormal in turn 
unashamedly that lobotomies "made good American citizens" out of 
actually seems to necessitate the existence of such a model.
society's misfits, "schizophrenics, homosexuals, and radicals. "
The fact that the paranormal cannot be explained by our current 
During this time Pribram came on the medical scene. However, 
scientific worldview is only one of the reasons it remains so controver- 
unlike many of his peers, Pribram felt it was wrong to tamper so 
sial. Another is that psychic functioning is often very difficult to pin 
recklessly with the brain of another. So deep were his convictions that 
down in the lab, and this has caused many scientists to conclude it 
while working as a young neurosurgeon in Jacksonville, Florida, he 
therefore does not exist. This apparent elusiveness will also be dis- 
opposed the accepted medical wisdom of the day and refused to allow 
cussed in the book.
any lobotomies to be performed in the ward he was overseeing. Later 
An even more important reason is that contrary to what many of us 
at Yale he maintained his controversial stance, and his then radical 
have come to believe, science is not prejudice-free. I first learned this 
views very nearly lost him his job.
a number of years ago when I asked a well-known physicist what he 
Bohm and Pribram's commitmentto stand up for what they believe 
thought about a particular parapsychological experiment. The physi- 
in, regardless of the consequences, is also evident in the holographic 
cist (who had a reputation for being skeptical of the paranormal)
model. As we shall see, placing their not inconsiderable reputations

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